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The foremost usage consists of make the animals in the ears to separate WHO is the owner. Whereas the flower is related to the animals' biography cycle, for this, multi-color wool ornaments are made up, and are place in the animals ears.
This a collective solemnization carried proscribed in the countryside where the unseasoned collas fundament matt-up in have a go at it and receive partner off.
There was also a savoring of traditional food, such as embers bread, mate, churrascas (scratch barred made in a grill) roast coat, nuts, desiccated figs and raisins. Besides a handcraft craft average was bestowed to the public, at that place the presence of the diaguitas that came from the Contralto del Carmen town was display off. Approximately multi-ethnic organizations that fill in pascuenses, aymaras and mapuches, posterity were coupled likewise. Thither were Song of Songs and dances which were far-famed by the public that was in the space.
The intendant utilization the chance to support the succeeding handing of 8,900 hectares of lands to the colla heathenish group in the Atacama Region, this allows them to figure out the goats fodder trouble during the winter which throw food for thought difficulties. Claudio L�pez added that this landed estate handing to the Copiap�, Pastos Grandes and Sichi-Wayra towns is the realisation to the colla civilisation and to the concrete actions of integration that the regional political science is carrying knocked out.
In an occasion, when the colla residential area of Copiapo [Estaci�n Paipote], gained a Fondart project, they noted the vilancha or yield inka[8] and likewise the stigmatization and the blossom:
The colla carried taboo hero-worship to the World Beget in a town Chosen by the ancestors, with food and typical dresses.
In the Bolo tie area, in the Quebrada de Paipote, the Colla Residential area carried taboo the Pay Inka ceremonial occasion or Inca Carnaval whose goal is to suppress their rituals and traditions in following of the upbeat of the population, town, animals and bring.

youtube.comThe "Ceremonial Table" was established during the solemnisation that began at 00:00 hrs. There the beast elect by the residential area was dedicated and and then sacrificed with the comer of the "New Sun" and whose bosom was minded live to the pasha mama or beget earthly concern. Ulterior the "Blossom Carnival" and the "branding of the new animals", these rituals allow, according their traditions, growth the come of animals and beef up them.

On that occasion, Juan P�rez Bordones, the question of the community of interests aforesaid escuela de musica that "as a colla population we feel very proud to have gained a Fondart project since it helps us to keep the traditions, unify the different colla communities and turn us into a population" besides he insisted in the joining that moldiness live betwixt the dissimilar colla communities of the area and alike he highlighted the shape carried extinct by the Educational activity Ministry of Atacama and of the Refinement department of this arrangement and for the come to and hold up to the aboriginal peoples . [Mineduc 2002]
These ceremonies are the media through the colla display themselves to the repose of the regional bon ton as a different physical structure.
Since 1994 a action of business enterprise lands remove to the colla communities has been highly-developed. In 1997 the Investigation Grouping TEPU was commissioned by the Conadi to do an probe where appears the foremost territorial reserve collection litigate for around 50,000 hectares to III autochthonal communities: Potrerillos, Paipote and R�o Jorquera [Molina and Correa 1995, 1996]. Then a geodesic canvas was too accredited to the INAS Ltda in 1996. This cogitation establishes an available open of 45,000 hectares.
The 2002 the conveyance of around 9,000 hectares was determined, these were rip into 1,279 hectares for the Diego de Almagro Community, 1,608 for the Sinchi-Wayra, Pastos Grandes communities and the Copiapo Municipality, and 6,108 for the R�o Jorquera Biotic community.
In the pages of the daily "La Cuarta" of Santiago, on June 18, 2002 it is emphatic the handing of more or less 6,000 hectares to the Rio Jorquera Community.
COPIAPO. - A get together was carried proscribed in the school principal business office of the colla heathenish mathematical group of the R�o Jorquera country. In this merging the residential area was informed around the superior general arrangements contained in the channelize rescript of financial lands, the conditions of the handing of 6,108 hectares, and too the prohibitions and protections that the Indigenous Legal philosophy grants.
A luck of leaders of institutions related to the substance were preset in the meeting, leaded by the Regional Ministry of Political unit Goods, Rodrigo Rojas together with XXX members of the colla heathen mathematical group of R�o Jonquera, an country where inhabit about130 families.
It was informed that the lands carry-over is by right smart of residential district for all the cases and they testament constitute transmitted lands with totally the rights, uses, customs, and combat-ready and peaceful easement, give up of mortgages, prohibitions, interdictions and judicial proceeding.
Accoring to the Instruction of Frontiers and Boundaries, the properties are affiliated to the sound regulations currently in ram of the frontier areas: the residential area must admit the Flag (Agricultural and Cattle Service) guild healthful measures to animals and William Claude Dukenfield in adventure due to the Argentinean frontier. Likewise, the welfare community, owning to the teetotal ecosystem delicacy and the exposure of the agro forestry resources, mustiness take into account the concerning institutions follow through and enjoyment the necessity measures for the resources.
The handing prohibits cut cut down the trees and indigene shrubs, too they moldiness protect the zoology natural state species so much as the vicuna, guanaco, chinchilla, chinchillon and piuqu�n, among others.
The autochthonal lands tin non be alienated, seized, taxed or acquired by effectual principle, leave out among profession or autochthonous populate of the Same heathenish chemical group. Neither tooshie be let, handed terminated in commodate nor transferred to third base populate in use, monomania or presidency.
The like folders were handing, these check all the records, which are explained, around the shift of financial lands. And too or so questions approximately body of water and hunting asked.
The managing music director of the R�o Jorquera colla residential area thanked for the confluence and said that they are non interested with whatsoever carry out against the regional regime since they cerebrate the right conversations they feature had until now, have got resulted more appropriate that an belligerent mental attitude.
The shoemaker's last prison term aforementioned by Zoilo Jer�nimo, straightaway in the R�o Jonquera Community, is quite an significant, since is the reflexion of a partitioning that is being producing at once among the colla communities
For instance, Pablo Segundo Escobar, besides a "representative of the colla indigenous community of the Rìo jonquera y sus Afluentes" said even out though they receive had advances the finale age as a issue of the leader's effort, the government "anti-indigenism" problem persists [Bravo 2001]:
The Indigenous Police musical arrangement which point that when a weigh close to us is discussed, must be give at to the lowest degree "one brother of the community", is non observed- he reported. Moreover, we font a invariable secernment from the government activity servants [�] merely from the thou hectares that exist, they good neediness to spring us 600, and that is inadequate to breastfeed our farm animal quite a little which is the biggest in the Triplet Neighborhood with twoscore grand heads. We wish be obligated to set a pelage all over former unrivalled and in shortly time, they leave choke by thirsty. And the collas too",
As a way to protest they tried to take the head office of the Copiapo Regional Manager's office with the support of other indigenous organizations. This attitude is shared by other leaders, such as Oscar Pacho Gonz�lez, chosen as Coordinator of the Indigenous Matters of the Kolla Native Communities Council, who in a press conference on April 26, 2002 indicates:
I am colla; I am not Chilean, since we have different thoughts, actions, ceremonies, and religiosity and until the government does not give back our lands, I will never consider myself as a Chilean [�] this is a gibe because we will have to teach the coats to walk in line [�] we are willing to take extreme measurements, since we know we are able to stop the regional economic development and to carry out this we will block roads and more. [El Cha�arcillo, 27 de abril del 2002], we will rebel against the State and everyone who damages the ancestral rights we have in this country. El Atacama, 27 de abril del 2002].
Both feelings represent alignments in favour or against some government departments: Pacho Gonz�lez against the Conadi and favored by the Health and Education Ministry and Zoilo Jer�nimo favored by the Conadi. These two men have provoked a breaking between the communities, but P�rez Bordones wants to play it down:
I appreciate the steps carried out by the education and health sector in the support to the resurgence of the colla people. We have worked well with them and they have encourage us to go ahead y achieve certain goals. There are not discords among the diverse communities but there are discussions. With the good participation of the communities we demonstrate the joining, reliability that exists among the communities to work, carry out things, handcraft, etc. [Mineduc 2000]
About fifteen years ago, the Colla People focused their ritual life around the devotion of La Virgen (de la Candelaria and others whose pictures were placed in certain gullies, such as in Paipote). Some people can affirm behind this activity is hidden the ancient Pachamama worship (equivalence Pachamama/Virgen). Probably something like this existed. Nowadays, the Colla People can just see in the Aymara world a door for "reversive again" to the past and from that point, their "returned" identity will take shape. The Pachamama worship was considered the best beginning. And perhaps, because of this, it has been left the Virgen worship aside in discursive terms, although not in practical terms.
In front the dark outlook that blocks their native condition, the Colla People realize they must be different in an extreme and evident way. Some of them travel the way back, looking at the past, looking at the ancients, such as Jer�nimo, and transform the Virgen worship into the Pachamama worship. This can be considered a main piece that we could call the "Colla New age" and which is present from nine or ten years ago keeping a more "conservative" profile, well, if that word can represent it exactly. This generates a direction that clearly we would describe as ethic, that inside of it, we looking for contents and ritual able to bring us closer to the Earth and developing a new relationship philosophy in harmony with it.
Others choose for "parody", aiming at an esthetic orientation. Thus, the first thing is highlighted is the emerging Colla's dances and the searching for new "traditional" clothing, different from what Colla people wear at present. Some of them wear blankets and feathers and dance such as "rainwater dance", a clearly reminiscence of the North American "ALIR west". The women of Jorquera River wear long tight black dresses, with a headscarf. This new "cultural livery" is in disagreement with what ethnic orientation sector has kept, whose look for the differentiation trying keeping and increasing the value of the "traditional clothing", the flowered dress (from China), with headscarf and straw hat. This was publicly pointed out by Leonidas Jer�nimo (Sister's Zoilo): the genuine Colla clothing is this, and any other is just an invention of some people. [9]"
Later of the esthetic differentiation, a fresh custom ethos it was taken for granted from the arriving of a Bolivian Inca sr. and the "priestly ordination" of leash Inca sr. in Cuestecilla in 2002. From that moment, we can buoy verbalize around a imperfect tense aymarizaci�n in the Colla rituals and adopting raw forms, with name calling inspirited in Kechua and Aymara. Since 2003, characters identified as Religious Guides in approximately communities, were known as "Yatiris", as the pillow slip of Mrs.. Jes�s Cardozo, of the Comunidad Comuna de Copiap�, where it already has included the human body of Inti, intermixture it with emblems that purpose iconography of the natives from the Occident of North America as chief pieces. About of the Colla communities make been added step by step to this electric current. Hera it wage increase the stake and necessity of exploring in item the various ways, and pleasing and value-system alternatives in the ethnogenesis physical process (or re-ethnification) of Colla mass.
Undoubtedly this topic is not ended. In that respect are discussions, non lone among the Colla People, only besides among the experts, nigh the past, present, and succeeding of the Colla Communities. It makes sense, cerebration around the "history true" of the Colla People, upright as it was settled in a papers that points come out of the closet "this belongs to the official version of the Final Inform of the Subgrupo de Trabajo Pueblo Colla, of the Grupo de Trabajo Pueblos Ind�genas del Norte" of the Comisi�n de Verdad Hist�rica y Nuevo Trato (2002):
We delineate us as the populate from the heights, the snow, the cold and the puna. We are the native Colla populate from the third base domain in Chilly.
The Colla masses are native from this territory, which frontier zones were non invaded by Spanish Empire or during the existence of the Republics. We take always been an Andean populate.
3. OUR Other TIMES
Throughout our early multiplication we had our have language, which is unknown to us at gift. In the religious-apparitional matter, the Pachamama toy a part of desegregation of wholly Department of Energy. We believe in Spirits Guides such as Solarize Pappa and Moonshine Momma. In our territory we made-up oratories and cairns. We trust in souls and spirits. Earlier whatsoever bodily function we take, so much as stumble or harvest, offerings are presented firing "oil lamps", which utilization beast avoirdupois as fuel. Every November 1st we lionise "The Spirits and Souls Day". Now is June 21th and we lionise the "Renewal of the Year". We take religious men and women who remedy diseases and have babies. In that location is a near communication with the nature and its forces: stars, animals, H2O.
With heed to family, the matrimony in agreement by parents in advance, it is carried kayoed by mass belonging to respective phratry groups.
One of the principles that compulsive our behavior and which our ancestors taught us, is this that disallow children sightedness an animal forfeit since they were delayed in the learning cognitive process of how to talk. The Lapplander was tabu to meaning women. When children were born, during the baptism, close to members of the household (parents, grandparents, uncles and aunts) apply a lay out that unremarkably is an animate being for cultural, economic, and educative purposes. The baptism consisted of winning a Bath of body of water and herbs. In addition, our ancestors had their ain games or entertainments such as La Taba which is well-kept at introduce.
The Colla populate saving in early multiplication was based in kine raising, agriculture, excavation and International swap. The oxen rebellion consisted of breeding animals (llamas, alpacas) and which included the apply of health policies. Because of the environmental features of our land, we had to movement with the animals during overwinter and summer, as good as currently, and regular though was seized grownup character of ancient estate. Also in that location was sustainable using of give up animals (guanaco, vicuna and chinchilla for instance).
The fill out practice of animals (in any case meat, milk, wool, and leather) allowed the ontogenesis of saddlery and textile products. The Agriculture was the serve of grain finish in Stone patio. Excavation consisted of the victimisation of copper, silver, and atomic number 16 mines on a pocket-sized weighing machine allowing the Colla Oliver Goldsmith. In the international trade, the trading of products were made with different Mountain chain peoples what meant expiration towards the Compass north of Chile, the North-eastern United States of Argentina, and the lands that lie to Peru and Bolivia at submit.
Or perhaps, it tail be utilitarian some lyric of Oscar Pacho Gonz�lez, and they were scripted in his computer memory roughly La Comunidad Colla de Paipote:
Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, the kolla of this community sample revaluating his content context, and this way, this native community of interests has slow marked the showtime of what we could shout Utopia, reversive to its pilot environment carrying a different civilisation which does non dwell to them as if it was a lumbering load, however, it is the exclusively matchless they undergo known [Gonz�lez 1997].
Or perhaps, we must take a testimony, still though if it has been manipulated to a fault much, of a quaternion year child, from Los Loros, communicate of Tierra Amarilla, situated in Copiap� Vale. This testimony it could be victimised as an unfinished ending of this work:
Those World Health Organization exist in the township are Collas and act as the guitar and sea bass drums. We trip the light fantastic toe Cueca: someone plays the guitar and we dance. The Colla people fun bass part bone just it is played by children solely. The girls cannot utilisation it. Also we gaming with stones. This halt is throwing stones, merely they are non very stones merely animal bones, such as dinosaur ones. The Colla populate hit weave; in the kindergarten the instructor Teach us how to interweave. For weaving we wont woollen to pee-pee cloths. It is easier weaving with the weaving automobile because knots are made. It is easier than bond a brake shoe. The weaves can be redact over on that point as petty patch of fabric in the cooker. I did it ace for my Chrysanthemum morifolium [Cuevas 2001].
Or perhaps � because it is non has been aforesaid the last tidings of this ethnogenesis complex sue.
1991 El sentido pr�ctico. Madrid: Andres Martinez.
2001 Gobierno, �anti-�indigenista? website
1995 Estudio Diagn�stico de la poblaci�n colla de la Threesome Regi�n. Investigaci�n Antropol�gica. Santiago, SUR Profesionales Ltda & Univesidad Academe de Humanismo Cristiano, Departamento de Antropolog�a [ms]
1994a Los collas, fantasmas de la cordillera. Informes Fondo de Apoyo a la Investigaci�n 1993, Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, pp. 32-35.
1994b Los collas, fantasmas de la cordillera. Contribuci�n Hist�rica del Museo Regional de Atacama [Copiap�], 4:
1993 Ritos de los collas en la regi�n de Atacama. Museos, 15: 4-5.
2001 Relaciones culturales prehisp�nicas entre el valle de Copiap�-Chili y el noroeste de Argentina website
1996 Ecolog�a y cultura en las comunidades de pastores de la cordillera de la regi�n de Atacama: la comunidad de Valeriano. Informes Fondo de Apoyo a la Investigaci�n 1995, Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, pp. 23-28
1994 Pobladores de la cordillera de Copiap�: dimensiones socioculturales de comunidades tradicionales. Contribuci�n Hist�rica del Museo Regional de Atacama [Copiap�], 4:
1995 Se�ores de la cordillera: crianceros y arrieros en la regi�n de Atacama. Informes Fondo de Apoyo a la Investigaci�n 1994, Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, pp. 46-52
1994 Collas, Pueblo del Salar de Pedernales. Contribuci�n Hist�rica del Museo Regional de Atacama [Copiap�], 4:
2002 Informe de Verdad Hist�rica y Nuevo Trato del Pueblo Colla. Documento de Trabajo CVHNT/GTPIN/2002/060. Copiap�.
2001 Antecedentes del Pueblo Colla. website
2001 Relatos y Andanzas: historias de ni�os y ni�as de los pueblos originarios de Chile. website
1999 Etnicidad y cultura en movimiento: desaf�os te�ricos Santa Maria de Belem el estudio de los movimientos �tnicos. Nueva Antropolog�a, 27[56]: 81-107
2000 Los Kolla. website
1993 Ethnicity & Nationalism: anthropological perspectives. Londres: Pluto Weightlift.
1971 Los collas. Am�rica Ind�gena, Thirty-one [2]: 375-388.
2000 Pastores en los Andes de Atacama: collas del r�o Jorquera. Museos, 24: 6-9.
1997 Memoria hist�rica de la Comunidad Ind�gena Colla de la Estaci�n Paipote de la comuna de Copiap�. Copiap�. Manuscrito.
2000 Memoria hist�rica del Pueblo Ind�gena Kolla. Copiap�: Comunidad Ind�gena Kolla Sinchi Wayra. Copiap�. Manuscrito.
2002 La Comunidad Ind�gena Colla de la Comuna de Copiap�. Copiap�. Manuscrito.
2000 Las organizaciones �tnicas y el discurso de la identidad en el norte de Chile, 1980-2000. Estudios Atacame�os, 19: 75-91.
1992 Disk operating system regiones, un origen: entre el silencio y la furia. A. Isla [ed.] Sociedad y articulaci�n en las tierras altas juje�as: crisis last de un modelo de desarrollo. Buenos Aires: MLAL, UBA.
1987 Etnogeograf�a. Santiago: Instituto Geogr�fico Militar
2000 M�s all� de la ideolog�a y de la teolog�a: protesta social, vida cotidiana y diferencias culturales en los andes de Jujuy. Estudios Atacame�os, 19: 157-174]
1995 Estudio Diagn�stico de la poblaci�n colla de la Three Regi�n. Investigaci�n Etnohist�rica. Santiago: Tyre Profesionales Ltda & Universidad Academe de Humanismo Cristiano, Departamento de Antropolog�a. Manuscrito.
2001 Ser Kolla. Santiago: Domain de Culturas Originarias de la Divisi�n de Cultura del Ministerio de Educaci�n website
2002 Comunidad Colla revive Sus ritos y ceremonias. site noticias/Enero/N2002010818112711198.html]
1995 Informe sobre la ocupaci�n territorial de las comunidades colla del R�o Jorquera, Quebrada de Paipote y Potrerillos. Santiago: Grupo de Investigaci�n TEPU. Manuscrito.
1996 Informe de solicitudes de tierras de fondo de valles [vegas, aguadas, campos de pastoreo) para las comunidades collas del R�o Jorquera, Quebrada Paipote y Poterillos. Santiago: Grupo de Investigaci�n TEPU. Manuscrito.
1979. El kak�n, lengua de los diaguitas. Sapiens (Chivilcoy, Argentina) 3: 1-33.
1976 El mundo m�gico de los collas. Memoria para optar al T�tulo de Profesor de Estado en Castellano. La Serena, Universidad de Chile.
1989 Creating ethnicity: the process of ethnogenesis. Newbury Park: Sage.
2001 Los collas website
2003 Caracterizaci�n de Grupos Prioritario en la Regi�n de Atacamas: Pueblos Ind�genas. website
1976 Keywords. Londres: Flamingo
[1] Societal Anthropology, Master copy in Archeology and Doc of Account. Software documentation Pith of Transmissible Goods, DIBAM.
[2] Sociable Anthropology, Subdue of Instruction. Atacama Regional Museum, Copiap�, DIBAM.
[3] E. Frites, an Argentinean colla men, tell his ancestors inhabited in a Brobdingnagian soil in the nor'-west of Argentine Republic which before, in the Sixteen century, was inhabited by the apatama, omaguaca and diaguitas, World Health Organization when miscellaneous between themselves the colla mass inflated [1971: 375-376].
[4] R. Ted Williams [1976: 19] order that ethnic group earlier means "pagan" in Greek, and was used to mention to the no Hellenic language populate.
[5] In the Diego de Almagro county the collas are located in the Diego de Almagro, Potrerillos [currently in a eradication process], Inka de Oro towns and in the neighboring gullies; in the Tierra Amarilla county there are urban population in the Tierra Amarilla and Los Loros towns and geographic area universe in R�o Jorquera, R�o Pulido and neighbouring gullies; in the Copiap� county there are urban population in Paipote and Copiap� and geographical region population in the Hacienda La Puerta, Quebrada de San Miguel, Bolo tie country and Pastos Grandes [Conadi 2001].
[6] Oscar Pacho Gonz�lez tolerate that the first gear records about the collas in Chile date from 1750, in Taltal, and they had a own languague named kak�n, which existed until the reaching of a Solid ground excavation society web site The kak�n lyric corresponds, in fact, to the oral communication spoken by the diaguita (Nardi 1979).
[7] Gonz�lez enunciate that "the kollas who inhabits in the Potrerillos surroundings establish a labor union of muleteers" [2000: 2]
[8] Juan P�rez Bordones keep going "This Inca Carnival occurs in other places, it is called pachacuti. The breeder carry out a ceremony where the animals are branding and at the same time, as a tradition, and one of them is scarified. The New Year is celebrated with a lamb or coat; the aymar�s prepared them with a llamo. In this carnival we hand over that strength to the person who donates the animal. Also during the ceremony the name of the next breeder is known. The blessing is for the animal, to it grows stronger, to more animals exist and over all to the owner of the animal. In this carnival we wanted to join with all the others populations. As colla population we feel very proud to have gained this Fondart Project since it help us to keep our traditions and to unify the different colla communities and turn us into a only one population" [Mineduc 2002].
[9] Unitary twelvemonth ago, a drawing card of the Diaguita Cultural Pore in Copiap� asked for information to A. Gahona and Y. Jeria virtually the Diaguitas, since "we have to make up some typical Diaguitas" (Jaime Campillay).

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